(testing signal)

Tag: tokens

Tokens are a New Digital Primitive, Analogous to the Website

Major computing waves generally have two eras: the skeuomorphic era and the native era.
In the skeuomorphic era, the design thinking is largely adapted from older domains. For example, the early web was mostly digital adaptations of pre-internet activities like letter writing and mail-order shopping. Websites back then were mostly read-only.
It took about a decade for technologists to start seriously exploring the idea that websites could be read/write, where users generate the content. This…… Read more...

Myanmar Language Natural Language Processing in Python

One of the main core features of this package is the capability to tokenize Myanmar language text. At the time of this writing, it supports:

  • Syllable-level tokenization (Burmese, Karen, Shan, Mon)
  • Word-level tokenization (Burmese)

Syllable-level tokenization

This tokenization is based on regular expression (regex). It supports Burmese, Karen, Shan and Mon languages. Call it as follows:

It will return a list of tokens (tokenized words).

Word-level tokenization

On the other hand, word-level tokenization supports only Burmese. It is based on conditional random field (CRF) prediction. Call the tokenize function as usual and specify the form parameter to word.

The output is slightly different from the syllable label depending on the input text.

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NLP Preprocessing and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) Topic Modeling with Gensim

The gensim Python library makes it ridiculously simple to create an LDA topic model. The only bit of prep work we have to do is create a dictionary and corpus.

A dictionary is a mapping of word ids to words. To create our dictionary, we can create a built in gensim.corpora.Dictionary object. From there, the filter_extremes() method is essential in order to ensure that we get a desirable frequency and representation of tokens in our dictionary.

id2word = corpora.Dictionary(data_preprocessed)
id2word.filter_extremes(no_below=15, no_above=0.4, keep_n=80000)

The filter_extremes() method takes 3 parameters. Let’s break down what those mean:

  • filter out tokens that appear in less than 15 documents
  • filter out tokens that appear in more than 40% of documents
  • after the above two steps, keep only the first 80,000 most frequent tokens

A corpus is essentially a mapping of word ids to word frequencies.

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Introduction to pyvi: Python Vietnamese NLP Toolkit

Tokenize

In this section, you will learn to perform tokenization on Vietnamese text. Create a new Python file and add the following code inside it.

from pyvi import ViTokenizertext = 'Xin chào! Rất vui được gặp bạn.'
result = ViTokenizer.tokenize(text)
print(result)

You should get the following output:

Xin chào ! Rất vui được gặp bạn .

Each token will be separated by a white space. You can easily convert it to a list by splitting the text with whitespace:

result.split(' ')

The new output is as follows:

['Xin', 'chào', '!', 'Rất', 'vui', 'được', 'gặp', 'bạn', '.']

spacy_tokenize

Besides that, pyvi does provide an alternative function called spacy_tokenize for better integration with spaCy package.

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What is Neuron Fund and Why Does it Matter?

Neuron Fund is an investment management company working in crypto financial markets and dedicated to delivering attractive risk-adjusted performance. NEUR token, option pools in DeFi.

image
Neuron Fund Hacker Noon profile picture

@neuronfundNeuron Fund

Decentralized investments products leveraging blockchain technology.

What is Neuron Fund?

DeFi (Decentralized Finance) opens opportunities for awesome returns on crypto investments. There are many parts of DeFi, including lending platforms, liquidity protocols, stock synthetics, automated market makers, and more. Yield aggregators are another option in the Decentralized Financial space.

Unfortunately, such opportunities are distributed over different chains and projects, their reliability is sometimes questionable, and diving into the ecosystem of novel chains takes time users rarely have.

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Seven in 10 Institutional Investors Expect To Buy Cryptos

Cryptocurrencies are now estimated to be worth roughly $2 trillion and — despite pressure from regulators — demand from investors continues:

In July 2021, FTX—the Antigua-based cryptocurrency derivatives exchange which offers futures, leverage tokens and OTC trading—raised $900 million from over 60 investors. This included venture capital firms Paradigm and Sequoia, hedge funds and the private equity group Thoma Bravo. It was the largest private equity deal in the crypto industry’s history, valuing the business at $18 billion—one of the largest rounds of financing for a digital assets startup.

In May 2021, Block.one —the Peter Thiel, Alan Howard and Louis Bacon backed blockchain software firm—pumped $9.7 billion into a new cryptocurrency exchange subsidiary called Bullish Global.

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How Can Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) Be Made To Work Better?

Introduction: At Expensivity, Bernard Fickser explains that a non-fungible token (NFT) is a unique token in cryptography that represents, say, real estate or art rather than money. Because the tokens have unique identities (non-fungible), they can be bought or sold while reducing the risk of fraud.

So how do they work?: The series is called How Non-Fungible Tokens Work: NFTs Explained, Debunked, and Legitimized (July 30, 2021). In Part 7, we look at 12 steps to make NFTs economically viable without Ethereum.

7 A Protocol for Handling NFTs on eBay

The best way to challenge an existing idea is to replace it with a better one.

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What Makes NFTs Valuable? What Does It Mean To Own One?

Introduction: At Expensivity.com, Bernard Fickser explains that a non-fungible token (NFT) is a unique token in cryptography that represents, say, real estate or art rather than money. Because the tokens have unique identities (non-fungible), they can be bought or sold while reducing the risk of fraud.

So how do they work?: The series is called How Non-Fungible Tokens Work: NFTs Explained, Debunked, and Legitimized (July 30, 2021). In Part 5, we looked at how scarcity, central to the economic value of works of art, can be created in the digital world, where copying is generally quite easy. Now, we look at what makes NFTs valuable and what it means to own them:

6 Value and Ownership of NFTs

In this section, I want to answer two key questions that have been touched on throughout this article: What makes NFTs valuable?

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Machine Learning is Not Just for Big Tech

For the analysis, the following python libraries were used:

import keras
from keras.layers import Input, Conv1D, Embedding , MaxPooling1D, GlobalMaxPooling1D, Dense
from keras.models import Model
from keras.preprocessing.text import Tokenizer
from keras.optimizers import Adam
from keras.preprocessing.sequence import pad_sequences
import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

Data

The training data was a corpus that compiled online reviews from Yelp, TripAdvisor, and Google Reviews. The reviews covered the past 10 years of operation for Altomonte’s. Each review in the training set had an associated rating from 1 to 5, where 1 is considered bad, and 5 is considered excellent.

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In the Digital World, What Does “Scarcity” Mean?

Introduction: At Expensivity, Bernard Fickser explains that a non-fungible token (NFT) is a unique token in cryptography that represents, say, real estate or art rather than money. Because the tokens have unique identities (non-fungible), they can be bought or sold while reducing the risk of fraud.

So how do they work?: The series is called How Non-Fungible Tokens Work: NFTs Explained, Debunked, and Legitimized (July 30, 2021). In Part 5, we look at how scarcity, central to the economic value of works of art, can be created in the digital world, where copying is generally quite easy:

5 Digital Scarcity

When jumping into the world of NFTs, one finds a certain breathless awe in the face of blockchain technology.

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4 NFTs: You Bought One. But Do You Really Own It? Could You Ever?

Introduction: At Expensivity, Bernard Fickser explains that a non-fungible token (NFT) is a unique token in cryptography that represents, say, real estate or art rather than money. Because the tokens have unique identities (non-fungible), they can be bought or sold while reducing the risk of fraud.

So how do they work?: The series is called How Non-Fungible Tokens Work: NFTs Explained, Debunked, and Legitimized (July 30, 2021). In Part 4, he looks at the question of what benefits NFTs, in their current state, really confer on you (or don’t):

4 What Just Happened?

The creation and purchase of an NFT as described in the last section raises a lot of interesting — and troubling — questions.

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The Best SOTA NLP Course is Free!

I probably don’t need to tell you that Hugging Face — and in particular its Transformers library — has become a major power player in the NLP space. Transformers is full of SOTA NLP models which can be used out of the box as-is, as well as fine-tuned for specific uses and high performance. Hugging Face NLP tools don’t stop there, however; its ecosystem includes numerous additional libraries, such as Datasets, Tokenizers, and Accelerate, and the 🤗 Model Hub.

However, with all of the massive and relentless advancements of natural language processing recently, keeping up with research breakthroughs and SOTA practices can be fraught with challenges.

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Bitcoin and the Internet of Assets

Bitcoin is Internet 3.0, and it will not only revolutionize money, but also revolutionize the transmission of value online as we know it.

The arguments around scaling and transaction fees are relatively myopic as the network has shown time and time again — scaling solutions will be adopted, and quickly.

Some of the best developers in the world are looking to build an open world, and have strong financial incentives aligned with that goal.

Beyond remittances and money use cases, BTC represents a transition to a phase of digital assets. A world where your ‘online real estate’ will carry as much weight to you, financially and socially, as your brick and mortar home.… Read more...

Tokenization vs Encryption

Both are mentioned together and are effective data obfuscation technologies. But they are not the same and are not interchangeable. In some cases such as electronic payments, they are used together to secure end-to-end process.

ENCRYPTION
Mathematically transforms plain text into cipher text using an encryption algorithm and a key.
Scales to larger data volumes with just the use of a small encryption key to decrypt data.
Used for structured fields as well as unstructured data such as entire files.
Ideal for exchanging sensitive data with third parties who share the key.
Format preserving encryption schemes come with a trade off of lower strength.… Read more...

Criptoeconomia: el Mejor de los Escenarios Posibles

Poco a poco las piezas van apareciendo y el puzzle toma forma. En un futuro deseable y no muy distante los servicios financieros, las cadenas de suministro la contabilidad, los seguros e incluso los gobiernos podrían ser reemplazados por aplicaciones descentralizadas.

La gente en todo el mundo lanzará sus token para captar capital, innovar y desarrollar sus propias iniciativas colaborativas al margen de fronteras y regulaciones.

Esto supondría el final de la era del “Feudalismo Digital” en la que aún nos encontramos. Una era en la que -no importa lo que hagas- siempre debes pagar algún tipo de peaje para hacer cualquier cosa.… Read more...

Becoming an ICO Advisor

The Idea: Tech team comes up with a new idea, technology, etc. around BC technology. In order to use the new tecnology, tokens are required and they are issued at the ICO. The tokens represent the cost of transacting (use to be called fuel) in the new platform.

The Announcement. Team anounces an ICO, representing the problem, how to solve it, etc. Uses a whitepaper. Instead of heavy technical details, whitepapers tend to be executive summaries, heavy on marketing jargon and promises. Channels are specialized online channels and forums.

The Capital Target. Team anounces how much capital is needed to execute the idea.… Read more...

ICOs y Tokens Digitales

En el último artículo comentaba cómo en las criptomonedas el debate político y el financiero son inseparables. Y cómo antes o después los estados intervendrían en el desarrollo la tecnología Blockchain. Esto ha empezado a ocurrir, y el detonante ha sido el fenómeno de las ICO (siglas de ‘Initial Coin Offering’).

Qué es una ICO y para qué sirve

El objetivo de las ICO es captar financiación, resolviendo un problema fundamental en cualquier nuevo proyecto o startup: los inversores no quieren financiar el ‘gap’ que va desde el valor de usuario al valor de red. Sólo quieren entrar cuando tu negocio ya tiene efectos de red, y además hay beneficios.… Read more...