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Tag: Maths

The Future Role Of AI And The UK National AI Strategy – Insights From Professor Mark Girolami

The UK Government recently announced its first-ever National AI Strategy – a 10-year plan aimed at staking a place for the country among the world’s AI superpowers.

The Future Role Of AI And The UK National AI Strategy – Insights From Professor Mark Girolami
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One organization that will help to turn the AI strategy into action will be the Alan Turing Institute, which was set up in 2015 as a national research center for data science and artificial intelligence. The institute takes its name from the highly influential British mathematician and computer scientist….

Famous Modern Math Problems: The 196 Lychrel Number Problem

A very simple and relatively new math problem that remains unsolved.Source: https://geekdad.com/2014/04/geekdad-puzzle-lychrel-sequences/In another installment of our series about famous mathematical problems, today I would like to discuss a very simple and relatively new problem that keeps challenging mathematicians. The statement of the problem is somewhat intriguing:Is the number 196 a Lychrel number?There is a simple math operation known as reverse-and-add. Take any natural number of two…

3D Printed Research Robotics Platform Runs Remotely

The Open Dynamic Robot Initiative Group is a collaboration between five robotics-orientated research groups, based in three countries, with the aim to build an Open Source robotics platform based around the torque-control method. Leveraging 3D printing, a few custom PCBs, and off-the-shelf parts, there is a low-barrier to entry and much lower cost compared to similar robots.

The eagle-eyed will note that this is only a development platform, and all of the higher level control is off-machine, hosted by a separate PC. What’s interesting here, is just how low-level the robot actually is. The motion hardware is purely a few BLDC motors driven by field-orientated control (FOC) driver units, a wireless controller and some batteries.

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Can There Be a General Theory for Fine-Tuning?

In Episode 2, the first part, (September 9, 2021), Swedish mathematician Ola Hössjer discusses fine tuning in biology with Walter Bradley Center director Robert J. Marks the way “Life is so finely tuned that it is frightening,” Put another way, the billions of cells in our bodies are each like a city. Not as a group but each of them. No wonder we feel so sick when things are going wrong with our cells. It is like billions of dysfunctional cities… Anyway, Hössjer has been working on a general theory for fine-tuning:


This portion begins at 12:07 min. A partial transcript, Show Notes, and Additional Resources follow.

Robert J.

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Humans and AI: Why AI Won’t Take Your Job

Could you do your job without a computer? As a child in the 1970s, I was told that computers would take all of our jobs. Yet here I am, working in a career that wouldn’t exist without computers. Most modern jobs require computers for emails, report writing, or videoconferences. Rather than replacing our jobs, computers have created new jobs and made existing jobs more human-centric, as we delegate tedious mechanistic tasks to machines.

I love watching the movie Hidden Figures, showcasing the social and technological revolutions of the 1960s. During the movie’s early moments, we are introduced to three computers: Mary Jackson, Katherine Johnson, and Dorothy Vaughan. In contrast to the popular science fiction theme of human-like robots, these computers were natural humans.… Read more...

Life Is So Wonderfully Finely Tuned That It’s Frightening

In Episode 2, “Life is fine-tuned in a fearful and wonderful way” (September 9, 2021), Swedish mathematician Ola Hössjer discusses fine tuning in biology with Walter Bradley Center director Robert J. Marks. It’s a bit scary to think that each of our cells is like a city because it certainly gives us some idea of all the things that can (but, thankfully, usually don’t) go wrong, Note: Episode 1 was “Run the gambit of complexity” (September 20, 2021) discussed here and here.


This portion begins at 01:14 min. A partial transcript, Show Notes, and Additional Resources follow.

Robert J. Marks: Today we’re going to talk about fine tuning in biology.

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COVID-19, Bayes’ Rule, and Simpson’s paradox

Israel has a very high COVID-19 vaccination rate and yet, on August 15, 2021, 58% of those Israelis hospitalized for COVID-19 were fully vaccinated — suggesting that vaccinations are ineffective or even harmful.

This is a great example of two common statistical traps. The first is confusion about inverse probabilities. One hundred doctors were once asked this hypothetical question:

In a routine examination, you find a lump in a female patient’s breast. In your experience, only 1 out of 100 such lumps turn out to be malignant, but, to be safe, you order a mammogram X-ray. If the lump is malignant, there is a 0.80 probability that the mammogram will identify it as malignant; if the lump is benign, there is a 0.90 probability that the mammogram will identify it as benign.

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The Top 10 scientific surprises of Science News’ first 100 years

From the day Archimedes cut his bath short to shout “Eureka,” science has been a constant source of surprises.

Even after the abundant accumulation of knowledge in the intervening two millennia, science still retains the capacity to astonish, and the century since Science News began reporting has produced its share of shocking discoveries. Some such surprises happened suddenly (if not necessarily with eureka moments); in other cases, revolutionary shifts in understanding took a while to seep slowly into general scientific awareness.

In either case, Science News was sooner or later on the job during the last 100 years, identifying and reporting the never-ending series of surprises, too numerous to mention here, except for my Top 10.

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Want to make money? Become a mathematician. Seriously.

Walk along any city street and you’re overwhelmed by signs proclaiming the importance of banks, greengrocers, fast food, and a thousand other professions. But it’s easy to imagine that maths is irrelevant to today’s world – supermarkets don’t sell mathematics in a can.

Actually, maths underpins our daily lives in thousands of ways. The equations of aerodynamics are vital to aircraft design. Navigation depends on trigonometry. The development of new medicines relies on statistics.

We seldom notice the maths because nearly all of it goes on behind the scenes, but an awful lot of people do need to know the maths to make these things work.

Read more about mathematics:

Maths opens up a huge variety of rewarding careers, both intellectually and financially.

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Fine-tuning? How Bayesian Statistics Could Help Break a Deadlock

In the earlier part of podcast episode 150, “Ours is a finely tuned — and No Free Lunch — universe,” Swedish mathematician Ola Hössjer and University of Miami biostatistician Daniel Andrés Díaz-Pachón discussed with Walter Bradley Center director Robert J. Marks the many ways in which the universe is finely tuned for life. Many theorists are not happy with the idea of fine-tuning because they are uncomfortable with its theistic implications. In this second portion of the episode, they discuss how a method of estimating probability called Bayesian statistics or Bayes theorem could help break a deadlock around fine-tuning:


This portion begins at 13:00 min.

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Further Dispatches From the War on Math – Walter Bradley Center for Natural and Artificial Intelligence

Earlier this year, I reposted an article that originally ran at Salvo on the war on the teaching of mathematics as a discipline in publicly funded schools in North America. The war continues so here are some updates:

Recently, three mathematicians who immigrated to the United States weighed in:

The United States has been dominant in the mathematical sciences since the mass exodus of European scientists in the 1930s. Because mathematics is the basis of science—as well as virtually all major technological advances, including scientific computing, climate modelling, artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, and robotics—US leadership in math has supplied our country with an enormous strategic advantage. But for various reasons, three of which we set out below, the United States is now at risk of losing that dominant position.

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9 Mistakes You Should Avoid in Your Data Science Projects

Get better results by overcoming these common mistakes

Photo by NeONBRAND on Unsplash

In data science, just like many other fields, you learn more by doing than by reading books or studying the technical aspects of the field. When anyone starts their data science learning journey, you will mostly spend a lot of time and effort learning many aspects, skills, and terminology. You will learn to code, maths and statistics, algorithms, visualization, and business basics.

And although all these concepts and topics are extremely important, knowing the theoretical side of a field doesn’t mean you will succeed in the field or can implement projects without a flaw. Sometimes, as beginners, we tend to do some simple to avoid mistakes that we only do because we lack the experience or we just weren’t taught to avoid these mistakes.

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MDS: Multidimensional Scaling — Smart Way to Reduce Dimensionality in Python

In general, the metric MDS calculates distances between each pair of points in the original high-dimensional space and then maps it to lower-dimensional space while preserving those distances between points as well as possible.

Note, the number of dimensions for the lower-dimensional space can be chosen by you. Typically, one would choose either 2D or 3D as it allows for the data to be visualized.

So let’s take a look at high-level steps performed by metric MDS. I have tried to keep maths to a minimum in this explanation, but it was impossible to avoid it altogether.

Steps used by metric MDS algorithm

Step 1 — The algorithm calculates distances between each pair of points, as illustrated below.

Points and their distances in 3D space.
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Stay updated with Neuroscience: August 2021 Must-Reads

How infants learn speaking 🗣️?; Harvard 🏛️ defines a new maths framework for biologically 🧠 inspired Reinforcement Learning; Neuronal avalanches modelling 🏂

Stay updated with Neuroscience: August 2021 Must-Reads

Why should you care about Neuroscience?

Neuroscience is the root of nowadays artificial intelligence 🧠🤖. Reading and being aware of the evolution and new insights in neuroscience not only will allow you to be a better “Artificial Intelligence” guy 😎, but also a finer neural network architectures creator 👩‍💻!

August proposes three complicated papers, that I tried to make simple and digestible. I guess many of you have always wondered how infants can put all the sounds together and learn languages 🗣️ Rohrlich and O’Reilly from the University of California Davis try to assess this question, developing fully biologically inspired neural networks, which proves experimental findings on infants — already tested in 1996!

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Ours Is a Finely Tuned — and No Free Lunch — Universe

Our Walter Bradley Center director Robert J. Marks had a chance, recently, to talk with Swedish mathematician Ola Hössjer and University of Miami biostatistician Daniel Andrés Díaz-Pachón on the many ways in which the universe is finely tuned for life. This is Part 1. Part 2 will shortly follow.


This portion begins at 00:00 min. A partial transcript, Show Notes, and Additional Resources follow.

Today on Mind Matters news on the podcast, we’re going to talk about fine-tuning of the universe for life. Scientists know that Earth is is finely tuned for life to come into existence. For example, pronounced atheist Sir Fred Hoyle (1915–2001).

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